Paris Peace Accords 23 Oct. 1991

Tuesday, December 12, 2017

Pseng-Pseng: Hun Sen’s Colour Revolution Illusion May Come True


Hun Sen’s Colour Revolution Illusion May Come True

“… the Secretary of State will restrict entry into the United States of those individuals involved in undermining democracy in Cambodia. In certain circumstances, family members of those individuals will also be subject to visa restrictions.”

US Department of State spokesperson Heather Nauert, Press Statement, 6 December 2017

“Banning visas will not make people in Cambodia die by having their children not [being allowed to] visit there. They can visit their parents [here] – there is no problem.”

CPP Spokesman Sok Eysan, 8 December 2017, The Phnom Penh Post

«យ៉ាង​ណា​វា​ប៉ះពាល់​សតិ​អារម្មណ៍​ដែរ សូម​សហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក​មេត្តា​ពិចារណា​ផង ព្រោះ​ថា​ប្រទេស​តូច​កុំ​ថា​ឡើយ​កម្ពុជា​ដល់​ទៅ​អាវុធ​នុយក្លេអ៊ែរ សូម្បី​អាវុធ​ប៉ុន​កូន​ដៃ​ក៏​គ្មាន​ដែរ។ សូម​ឲ្យ​លោក​ជា​មហាយក្ស​សូម​ឲ្យ​ជួយ​ពិនិត្យ​មើល និង​សូម​ឲ្យ​ប្រទេស​កម្ពុជា​ដែល​ជា​ប្រទេស​តូច​មួយ​ហ្នឹង​រស់​បាន​ដោយ​សុខ​សន្តិភាព​ផង។»

អ្នក​នាំ​ពាក្យ​គណបក្ស​ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា សុខ ឥសាន ថ្ងៃ​ទី​១០ ខែ​មីនា ឆ្នាំ​២០១៦ វិទ្យុ​អាស៊ីសេរី

Hun Sen finally tones down his rhetoric against the US when a limited US sanction hits the CPP’s raw nerves. He now agrees to again accept deported Cambodian ex-criminals from the US because of the visa restriction the US has imposed on Ministry of Foreign Affairs top officials. Rather than lifting it as a reward for the backdown, the US up the ante, extending the restriction to those who undermine Cambodian democracy, and their families.

The expanded sanction makes the CPP’s head spin. Initially, Sok Eysan sees no problems. He is right though that the visa restriction will not kill Cambodians. Most do not have enough to send their children for education or buy real estates in the US. Indeed, only children of those who can afford can visit their parents in Cambodia to circumvent the sanction.

On second thought forty-eight hours later, Eysan realises those children may not be allowed back to the US after the visit to their parents who are in the sanction list. He whines, and begs for a US reconsideration. He becomes delusional when he infers that the sanction is due to nuclear weaponry he claims the CPP do not have.

Monday, December 11, 2017

[Demographic Vietnamization: Fisheries, Tonle Sap] Government, experts differ on fisheries outlook

A man casts a net into the Mekong River from the back of a fishing boat near Phnom Penh’s Koh Pich island.
A man casts a net into the Mekong River from the back of a fishing boat near Phnom Penh’s Koh Pich island.

Government, experts differ on fisheries outlook

Phnom Penh Post | 11 December 2017
Government officials presented a rosier outlook for the Kingdom’s imperiled freshwater fisheries than that espoused by scientists and conservationists at a global workshop on fisheries, food security and nutrition that wrapped up in Siem Reap on Friday. 

In his opening remarks, Deputy Prime Minister Yim Chhay Ly claimed the government has strengthened enforcement of the Fisheries Law. 

“The Royal Government of Cambodia ... has paid close attention to conserving natural resources for development and building capacity for conservation,” he said, in an 11-minute speech that covered the threats to Cambodia’s fisheries, noting their importance to the national economy, migration and food security. 

Eng Chea San, the director general of the fisheries administration, speaking on the sidelines of the conference, backed up Chhay Ly’s position, stating that since the start of the year authorities have confiscated some 1.5 million metres of illegal fishing nets. 

“We have done a lot of cracking down on illegal fishing activities,” he said.

The comments, however, did little to challenge the assessment of many leading experts: that thanks to a combination of overfishing, climate change, deforestation and the destruction of wetlands, Cambodia’s Tonle Sap lake – one of the most productive inland fisheries on the planet – is at serious risk of out-and-out failure.

PM, military officials say Rainsy will face ‘treason’ suit over Facebook post

Military Commander-in-Chief Pol Saroeun speaks to the press at the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces headquarters in Phnom Penh where he vowed to formally accuse ex-opposition leader Sam Rainsy of treason over a recent Facebook post.
Military Commander-in-Chief Pol Saroeun speaks to the press at the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces headquarters in Phnom Penh where he vowed to formally accuse ex-opposition leader Sam Rainsy of treason over a recent Facebook post. Phann Rachana

PM, military officials say Rainsy will face ‘treason’ suit over Facebook post

Phnom Penh Post | 7 December 2017 

Prime Minister Hun Sen and members of the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces yesterday announced their intention to formally accuse former opposition leader Sam Rainsy of treason, after Rainsy urged soldiers and policemen not to shoot protesters.

អតីត​ មេ​បក្ស​ប្រឆាំង​​ មិន​ខ្វល់​ ពី​​បណ្ដឹង ​​របស់​ កងទ័ព​ ប្រឆាំង​ នឹង​រូប​លោក | Former opposition leader not worry about lawsuit against by military

លោក សម រង្ស៊ី អតីតប្រធានគណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះជាតិ ថ្លែង​ទៅកាន់អ្នកគាំទ្រគណបក្សតាមរយៈវីដេអូបង្ហោះតាមប្រព័ន្ធអ៊ីនធឺណិត ពីប្រទេសអ៊ីតាលី កាលពីថ្ងៃទី៣០ ខែតុលា ឆ្នាំ២០១៧។ (រូបដកស្រង់ពីវីដេអូ)
រូបឯកសារ៖ លោក​ នាយក​រដ្ឋមន្ត្រី ហ៊ុន សែន​ ថ្លែង​ទៅកាន់​មហាជន​ ក្នុង​កម្មវិធី​អបអរសាទរ​ការដាក់ប្រសាទ​សំបូរ​ព្រៃគុក​ ក្នុង​បញ្ជីរបេតិកភណ្ឌពិភពលោក​ នៅរាជធានីភ្នំពេញ​ នៅថ្ងៃទី​១៧​ ខែកក្កដា ឆ្នាំ​២០១៧។ (អូន​ ឆេងប៉រ/​ VOA)

អតីត​ មេ​បក្ស​ប្រឆាំង​​ មិន​ខ្វល់​ ពី​​បណ្ដឹង ​​របស់​ កងទ័ព​ ប្រឆាំង​ នឹង​រូប​លោក

VOA / វីអូអេ | ធ្នូ ២០១៧

លោក​ ​សម រង្ស៊ី​ ​អតីត ប្រធាន ​គណបក្ស​ សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ​ដែល​ត្រូវ​ បាន​រំលាយ​ចោល ​ដោយ​តុលាការ​ កំពូល​ ​បាន​ច្រានចោល​ ការ​ចោទប្រកាន់​ របស់ ​មេដឹកនាំ ​កម្ពុជា​ ​និង​មេបញ្ជាការ​ កំពូល​ យោធា​ របស់ ប្រទេស​នេះ​ ដែល​បាន​ ហៅ​លោក​ ថា​ «ជន ​ក្បត់​ជាតិ»​ ​បន្ទាប់ ​ពី​លោក​ បាន​ធ្វើ​ការ​ អំពាវនាវ​ ស្នើ​សុំ​ ឲ្យ​កងទ័ព ​កុំ​ ស្ដាប់​តាម​ បញ្ជា ​ដែល​តម្រូវ ​ឲ្យ​បាញ់​សម្លាប់​ ជន​ស្លូតត្រង់។

[Demographic Vietnamization] Vietnam, Cambodia to develop cashew farming area

Cashew processing in the Nhat Huy JSC in Binh Duong, Vietnam. (Photo: VNA)

Vietnam, Cambodia to develop cashew farming area

Vietnam Plus | 7 December 2017
Cambodian Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and some local growers are proposing to cooperate with the VINACAS to build a “one-million-tonne” cashew growing plantation on an area of 500,000 hectares in Cambodia in the future.
HCM City (VNA) – The Vietnam Cashew Association (VINACAS) is working with the Cambodian Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries to establish a cashew farming area in Cambodia that is able to produce 1 million tonnes of material cashew annually.

VINACAS President Nguyen Duc Thanh unveiled the information at the association’s seminar in HCM City on December 7 to seek ways to support foreign trade of cashew between 2018 and 2019.

[Vietnamization: Elections] Cambodian NA elects first Vice President

A meeting of the Cambodian National Assembly (Photo: EPA/VNA)

Cambodian NA elects first Vice President

Vietnam Plus | 8 December 2017

Hanoi (VNA) – The National Assembly of Cambodia elected You Hockry, a parliamentarian of FUNCIPEC party, as its first Vice President with 112 ayes, two noes and two blank votes on December 8, according to NA President Heng Samrin.
Five from the party were also selected to be Chairpersons of five NA Committees, while five others from the ruling Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) will take the positions of the rest five NA Committees.
Cambodia’s Supreme Court on November 16 ordered the dissolution of the Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP) and banned 118 senior officials of the party from politics for five years because the party was accused of having conspired with foreigners to topple the Government.
Accordingly, the CNRP’s seats at the parliament and People’s Councils at all levels were abolished.
Last week, the country’s National Election Committee relocated the 55 seats of the dissolved CNRP to the CPP, FUNCINPEC, the Cambodian Nationality Party and the Khmer Economic Development Party.-VNA

[Vietnamization: Border] Vietnam, Cambodia review joint patrols at sea

Naval officers of Vietnam and Cambodia sign a document on coordination in joint patrols in 2018 (Photo:

Vietnam, Cambodia review joint patrols at sea

 Vietnam Plus | 4 December 2017

Hanoi (VNA) – The High Command of Region 5 of the Vietnam People’s Navy and naval bases of the Royal Cambodian Navy held their 24th meeting on joint patrol work in Phu Quoc [Koh Tral] island district, the southern province of Kien Giang, on December 4.

The meeting aimed to review the outcomes of the 47th and 48th joint patrols and discuss security and order in the waters of the two countries.

Participants looked into the partnering of Naval Region 5 of Vietnam with naval bases of the Royal Cambodian Navy. They also approved a plan on the 49th and 50th joint patrols and the 25th meeting on joint patrol work.

The two sides’ patrol forces also held training in search, rescue, and communications, helping improve naval officers and soldiers’ skills, reinforcing mutual understanding and trust, and maintaining security and order at sea.-VNA

[Vietnamization: Elections] Cambodia parliament recognises new lawmakers

A view of the National Assembly of Cambodia. (Photo: KI Media)

Cambodia parliament recognises new lawmakers

 Vietnam Plus | 7 December 2017

Phnom Penh (VNA) – The National Assembly of Cambodia on December 7 recognised 16 new lawmakers and agreed to support three replacement members of the National Election Committee.

The decision was adopted at the plenary meeting of the fifth NA’s ninth session the same day. 

According to the communiqué issued by the Office of the Secretary General of the Cambodian NA, they include 15 parliamentarians from the ruling Cambodian People’s Party and another from the Funcinpec Party (FP). 

After the validity announcement, all new lawmakers will be sworn-in the same day. 

Earlier, 44 new parliamentarians from other parties apart from CPP took their oaths on November 28. 

Before the plenary session of the NA, the Standing Committee of the Cambodian NA adopted the agenda for the next December 8 meeting, including casting votes to elect new personnel for the 10 committees of the NA previously under the recently-dissolved Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNP). 

After new seats are filled, the Cambodian legislature will have 123 seats, including 79 for CPP, 41 for FP, two for CNP and one for the Khmer Economic Development Party.-VNA

[Vietnamization: Defense] Vietnam, Cambodia fast-track upgrade of friendship monuments

At the conference (Source: VNA)

Vietnam, Cambodia fast-track upgrade of friendship monuments

 Vietnam Plus | 5 December 2017

HCM City (VNA) – The upgrade of 12 Vietnam-Cambodia Friendship Monuments in Cambodia has been completed while work is under way on three others under a joint project, heard a conference in Ho Chi Minh City on December 5. 

At the conference reviewing outcomes of the project on renovating Vietnam-Cambodia Friendship Monuments in Cambodia, the two sides said they have closely coordinated in the work, noting that it is a vivid demonstration of the friendship and neighbourliness between the two countries. 

With financial support of the Vietnamese side, Cambodian localities have ensured progress and quality of the project. 

The two sides agreed to continue effectively implementing contents of the minutes of the second meeting between the Vietnamese Ministry of National Defence and the National Council of Solidarity Front for Development of Cambodia Motherland held in HCM City on November 24, 2016.

They will also speed up the progress of the ongoing upgrading projects, aiming to finish the work in the first quarter of 2018. 

At the same time, the Cambodia side will continue to examine friendship monuments in the country and inform the Vietnamese side about their conditions. 

They will propose the Vietnamese and Cambodian Governments construct new friendship monuments in historical sites in Cambodia if necessary.-VNA

[Vietnamization: PRK] Cambodia marks 39th anniversary of solidarity front

President of the Cambodian National Assembly Samdech Heng Samrin (Source: VNA)

Cambodia marks 39th anniversary of solidarity front

 Vietnam Plus | 2 December 2017

Phnom Penh (VNA) – A ceremony marking the 39th anniversary of the Kampuchean United Front for National Salvation (KUFNS) (December 2), now the Solidarity Front for the Development of Cambodia Motherland (SFDCM), took place in Phnom Penh on December 2. 

Speaking at the event, President of the Cambodian National Assembly Samdech Heng Samrin said the KUFNS not only saved Cambodia from Pol Pot genocide regime but also supported national development in all aspects. 

The KUFNS was established in Snuol district, Kratie province on December 2, 1978 when Cambodia was under Khmer Rouge genocide regime. Under the leadership of Heng Samrin, Chea Sim and Hun Sen, the KUFNS gathered people from all walks of life with the support of the Vietnamese voluntary soldiers to bring about the January 7, 1979 victory, eliminating the genocidal region thereby bringing peace and independence to the nation. 

Chargé d’Affaires at the Vietnamese Embassy in Cambodia Nguyen Trac Toan and representatives of several embassies in Cambodia also attended the event.-VNA

[Demographic Vietnamization] Vietnam wants Cambodia to grow cashew

Vietnam wants Cambodia to grow cashew

Vietnam Net | 10 December 2017

The Viet Nam Cashew Association has provided VND1.5 billion (US$66,000) to the Cambodian Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries for growing one million cashew trees on a total area of 500,000 hectares from now through 2022.
“Cambodia is one of the countries in the world that have excellent natural conditions for growing cashew,” Nguyen Duc Thanh, chairman of VINACAS, told a conference held on Thursday to discuss import and export of cashew through next year.
Cambodia has paid much attention to developing cashew to improve the living standards of farmers, he said.
VINACAS has collaborated with the ministry and some Cambodian firms and hopes to grow one million tonnes of cashew a year in that country in a few years from now.
VINACAS and its members will buy the entire cashew output and work closely with Cambodian partners to speed up the project.
“In the last few years, due to price volatility and poor management of farming, the area under cashew in Cambodia plummeted from 300,000ha in 2014 to 100,000ha,” Hean Vann Horn, head of the ministry’s agriculture general department and an envoy of the Cambodian Government said.
“To ensure success and attract the participation of local farmers, VINACAS should provide good seeds, training in cultivation techniques and harvesting technologies to ensure good quality and yields.”
This year Viet Nam is expected to export processed cashew worth $3.5 billion and remain the largest exporter in the world as it has been for the last 11 years.
Viet Nam has a strong cashew processing industry, but local raw material supply only meets 20 -35 per cent of demand.
Viet Nam has imported 1.2 million tonnes of raw cashew so far this year, mostly from Africa.
But importers face risks related to poor quality and difficulty in getting refunds.
Before 2014 Cambodia had only been exporting 30 per cent of its raw cashew to Viet Nam, but for the last two years the figure has been 90 per cent. It is now the fifth biggest exporter to Viet Nam.
If Cambodia can grow one million tonnes of cashew a year, it will be the biggest raw cashew nut exporter in the world. – VNS

Sunday, December 10, 2017

Book I - Right And Wrong As A Clue To The Meaning Of The Universe

Book I - Right And Wrong As A Clue To The Meaning Of The Universe [by Oxford don C. S. Lewis, the premier thinker of 20th century, given as radio addresses on BBC during WWII before compiled into a book]

1. The Law Of Human Nature

Every one has heard people quarrelling. Sometimes it sounds funny and sometimes it sounds merely unpleasant; but however it sounds, I believe we can learn something very important from listening to the kind of things they say. They say things like this: "How'd you like it if anyone did the same to you?"—"That's my seat, I was there first"—"Leave him alone, he isn't doing you any harm"— "Why should you shove in first?"—"Give me a bit of your orange, I gave you a bit of mine"—"Come on, you promised." People say things like that every day, educated people as well as uneducated, and children as well as grown-ups.

Now what interests me about all these remarks is that the man who makes them is not merely saying that the other man's behaviour does not happen to please him. He is appealing to some kind of standard of behaviour which he expects the other man to know about. And the other man very seldom replies: "To hell with your standard." Nearly always he tries to make out that what he has been doing does not really go against the standard, or that if it does there is some special excuse. He pretends there is some special reason in this particular case why the person who took the seat first should not keep it, or that things were quite different when he was given the bit of orange, or that something has turned up which lets him off keeping his promise.

It looks, in fact, very much as if both parties had in mind some kind of Law or Rule of fair play or decent behaviour or morality or whatever you like to call it, about which they really agreed. And they have. If they had not, they might, of course, fight like animals, but they could not quarrel in the human sense of the word. Quarrelling means trying to show that the other man is in the wrong. And there would be no sense in trying to do that unless you and he had some sort of agreement as to what Right and Wrong are; just as there would be no sense in saying that a footballer had committed a foul unless there was some agreement about the rules of football.

Now this Law or Rule about Right and Wrong used to be called the Law of Nature. Nowadays, when we talk of the "laws of nature" we usually mean things like gravitation, or heredity, or the laws of chemistry. But when the older thinkers called the Law of Right and Wrong "the Law of Nature," they really meant the Law of Human Nature. The idea was that, just as all bodies are governed by the law of gravitation and organisms by biological laws, so the creature called man also had his law—with this great difference, that a body could not choose whether it obeyed the law of gravitation or not, but a man could choose either to obey the Law of Human Nature or to disobey it.

We may put this in another way. Each man is at every moment subjected to several different sets of law but there is only one of these which he is free to disobey. As a body, he is subjected to gravitation and cannot disobey it; if you leave him unsupported in mid-air, he has no more choice about falling than a stone has. As an organism, he is subjected to various biological laws which he cannot disobey any more than an animal can. That is, he cannot disobey those laws which he shares with other things; but the law which is peculiar to his human nature, the law he does not share with animals or vegetables or inorganic things, is the one he can disobey if he chooses.

This law was called the Law of Nature because people thought that every one knew it by nature and did not need to be taught it. They did not mean, of course, that you might not find an odd individual here and there who did not know it, just as you find a few people who are colour-blind or have no ear for a tune. But taking the race as a whole, they thought that the human idea of decent behaviour was obvious to every one. And I believe they were right. If they were not, then all the things we said about the war were nonsense. What was the sense in saying the enemy were in the wrong unless Right is a real thing which the Nazis at bottom knew as well as we did and ought to have practised? If they had had no notion of what we mean by right, then, though we might still have had to fight them, we could no more have blamed them for that than for the colour of their hair.

I know that some people say the idea of a Law of Nature or decent behaviour known to all men is unsound, because different civilisations and different ages have had quite different moralities.

But this is not true. There have been differences between their moralities, but these have never amounted to anything like a total difference. If anyone will take the trouble to compare the moral teaching of, say, the ancient Egyptians, Babylonians, Hindus, Chinese, Greeks and Romans, what will really strike him will be how very like they are to each other and to our own. Some of the evidence for this I have put together in the appendix of another book called The Abolition of Man; but for our present purpose I need only ask the reader to think what a totally different morality would mean. Think of a country where people were admired for running away in battle, or where a man felt proud of double-crossing all the people who had been kindest to him.

You might just as well try to imagine a country where two and two made five. Men have differed as regards what people you ought to be unselfish to—whether it was only your own family, or your fellow countrymen, or everyone. But they have always agreed that you ought not to put yourself first. Selfishness has never been admired. Men have differed as to whether you should have one wife or four. But they have always agreed that you must not simply have any woman you liked.

But the most remarkable thing is this. Whenever you find a man who says he does not believe in a real Right and Wrong, you will find the same man going back on this a moment later. He may break his promise to you, but if you try breaking one to him he will be complaining "It's not fair" before you can say Jack Robinson. A nation may say treaties do not matter, but then, next minute, they spoil their case by saying that the particular treaty they want to break was an unfair one. But if treaties do not matter, and if there is no such thing as Right and Wrong— in other words, if there is no Law of Nature—what is the difference between a fair treaty and an unfair one? Have they not let the cat out of the bag and shown that, whatever they say, they really know the Law of Nature just like anyone else?

It seems, then, we are forced to believe in a real Right and Wrong. People may be sometimes mistaken about them, just as people sometimes get their sums wrong; but they are not a matter of mere taste and opinion any more than the multiplication table. Now if we are agreed about that, I go on to my next point, which is this. None of us are really keeping the Law of Nature. If there are any exceptions among you, I apologise to them. They had much better read some other work, for nothing I am going to say concerns them. And now, turning to the ordinary human beings who are left:

I hope you will not misunderstand what I am going to say. I am not preaching, and Heaven knows I do not pretend to be better than anyone else. I am only trying to call attention to a fact; the fact that this year, or this month, or, more likely, this very day, we have failed to practise ourselves the kind of behaviour we expect from other people. There may be all sorts of excuses for us. That time you were so unfair to the children was when you were very tired. That slightly shady business about the money—the one you have almost forgotten—came when you were very hard up. And what you promised to do for old So-and-so and have never done—well, you never would have promised if you had known how frightfully busy you were going to be. And as for your behaviour to your wife (or husband) or sister (or brother) if I knew how irritating they could be, I would not wonder at it—and who the dickens am I, anyway? I am just the same.

That is to say, I do not succeed in keeping the Law of Nature very well, and the moment anyone tells me I am not keeping it, there starts up in my mind a string of excuses as long as your arm. The question at the moment is not whether they are good excuses. The point is that they are one more proof of how deeply, whether we like it or not, we believe in the Law of Nature. If we do not believe in decent behaviour, why should we be so anxious to make excuses for not having behaved decently? The truth is, we believe in decency so much—we feel the Rule or Law pressing on us so— that we cannot bear to face the fact that we are breaking it, and consequently we try to shift the responsibility. For you notice that it is only for our bad behaviour that we find all these explanations.

It is only our bad temper that we put down to being tired or worried or hungry; we put our good temper down to ourselves. These, then, are the two points I wanted to make. First, that human beings, all over the earth, have this curious idea that they ought to behave in a certain way, and cannot really get rid of it. Secondly, that they do not in fact behave in that way. They know the Law of Nature; they break it. These two facts are the foundation of all clear thinking about ourselves and the universe we live in.

2. Some Objections

If they are the foundation, I had better stop to make that foundation firm before I go on. Some of the letters I have had show that a good many people find it difficult to understand just what this Law of Human Nature, or Moral Law, or Rule of Decent Behaviour is.

For example, some people wrote to me saying, "Isn't what you call the Moral Law simply our herd instinct and hasn't it been developed just like all our other instincts?" Now I do not deny that we may have a herd instinct: but that is not what I mean by the Moral Law. We all know what it feels like to be prompted by instinct—by mother love, or sexual instinct, or the instinct for food. It means that you feel a strong want or desire to act in a certain way. And, of course, we sometimes do feel just that sort of desire to help another person: and no doubt that desire is due to the herd instinct. But feeling a desire to help is quite different from feeling that you ought to help whether you want to or not. Supposing you hear a cry for help from a man in danger.

You will probably feel two desires—one a desire to give help (due to your herd instinct), the other a desire to keep out of danger (due to the instinct for self-preservation). But you will find inside you, in addition to these two impulses, a third thing which tells you that you ought to follow the impulse to help, and suppress the impulse to run away. Now this thing that judges between two instincts, that decides which should be encouraged, cannot itself be either of them. You might as well say that the sheet of music which tells you, at a given moment, to play one note on the piano and not another, is itself one of the notes on the keyboard. The Moral Law tells us the tune we have to play: our instincts are merely the keys.
Another way of seeing that the Moral Law is not simply one of our instincts is this. If two instincts are in conflict, and there is nothing in a creature's mind except those two instincts, obviously the stronger of the two must win. But at those moments when we are most conscious of the Moral Law, it usually seems to be telling us to side with the weaker of the two impulses. You probably want to be safe much more than you want to help the man who is drowning: but the Moral Law tells you to help him all the same. And surely it often tells us to try to make the right impulse stronger than it naturally is? I mean, we often feel it our duty to stimulate the herd instinct, by waking up our imaginations and arousing our pity and so on, so as to get up enough steam for doing the right thing. But clearly we are not acting from instinct when we set about making an instinct stronger than it is. The thing that says to you, "Your herd instinct is asleep. Wake it up," cannot itself be the herd instinct. The thing that tells you which note on the piano needs to be played louder cannot itself be that note.

Here is a third way of seeing it. If the Moral Law was one of our instincts, we ought to be able to point to some one impulse inside us which was always what we call "good," always in agreement with the rule of right behaviour. But you cannot. There is none of our impulses which the Moral Law may not sometimes tell us to suppress, and none which it may not sometimes tell us to encourage. It is a mistake to think that some of our impulses— say mother love or patriotism—are good, and others, like sex or the fighting instinct, are bad. All we mean is that the occasions on which the fighting instinct or the sexual desire need to be restrained are rather more frequent than those for restraining mother love or patriotism. But there are situations in which it is the duty of a married man to encourage his sexual impulse and of a soldier to encourage the fighting instinct.

There are also occasions on which a mother's love for her own children or a man's love for his own country have to be suppressed or they will lead to unfairness towards other people's children or countries. Strictly speaking, there are no such things as good and bad impulses. Think once again of a piano. It has not got two kinds of notes on it, the "right" notes and the "wrong" ones. Every single note is right at one time and wrong at another. The Moral Law is not any one instinct or any set of instincts: it is something which makes a kind of tune (the tune we call goodness or right conduct) by directing the instincts.

By the way, this point is of great practical consequence. The most dangerous thing you can do is to take any one impulse of your own nature and set it up as the thing you ought to follow at all costs. There is not one of them which will not make us into devils if we set it up as an absolute guide. You might think love of humanity in general was safe, but it is not. If you leave out justice you will find yourself breaking agreements and faking evidence in trials "for the sake of humanity," and become in the end a cruel and treacherous man.

Other people wrote to me saying, "Isn't what you call the Moral Law just a social convention, something that is put into us by education?" I think there is a misunderstanding here. The people who ask that question are usually taking it for granted that if we have learned a thing from parents and teachers, then that thing must be merely a human invention. But, of course, that is not so. We all learned the multiplication table at school. A child who grew up alone on a desert island would not know it. But surely it does not follow that the multiplication table is simply a human convention, something human beings have made up for themselves and might have made different if they had liked?

I fully agree that we learn the Rule of Decent Behaviour from parents and teachers, and friends and books, as we learn everything else. But some of the things we learn are mere conventions which might have been different—we learn to keep to the left of the road, but it might just as well have been the rule to keep to the right—and others of them, like mathematics, are real truths. The question is to which class the Law of Human Nature belongs.

There are two reasons for saying it belongs to the same class as mathematics. The first is, as I said in the first chapter, that though there are differences between the moral ideas of one time or country and those of another, the differences are not really very great—not nearly so great as most people imagine—and you can recognise the same law running through them all: whereas mere conventions, like the rule of the road or the kind of clothes people wear, may differ to any extent. The other reason is this.

When you think about these differences between the morality of one people and another, do you think that the morality of one people is ever better or worse than that of another? Have any of the changes been improvements? If not, then of course there could never be any moral progress. Progress means not just changing, but changing for the better. If no set of moral ideas were truer or better than any other, there would be no sense in preferring civilised morality to savage morality, or Christian morality to Nazi morality. In fact, of course, we all do believe that some moralities are better than others. We do believe that some of the people who tried to change the moral ideas of their own age were what we would call Reformers or Pioneers—people who understood morality better than their neighbours did. Very well then.

Season of Advent: O Come, O Come, Emmanuel - Enya

"Peace is joy resting... Joy is peace dancing."

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 "Peace is joy resting...
Joy is peace dancing."
Theary C. Seng

Word Study: Lev - "Heart"

Different cultures have different conceptions of the human heart, what it is and what it does, and the biblical authors are no exception. In this video we'll explore the ancient Hebrew words for "heart" as well as the different ideas of what our hearts represent. There is no biblical word that captures better the essence of human thought, feeling, and desire, than this rich and wonderful word. This video is the fourth installment of our Word Studies series, a six-part exploration of the ancient biblical prayer called “The Shema." We will explore all of the keywords in this prayer and what they meant in their original language and historical context.

Saturday, December 9, 2017

កម្មវិធី ​ទូរទស្សន៍ ​អាស៊ីសេរី​ សម្រាប់​ ថ្ងៃ​ទី៨​ ខែ​ធ្នូ​​​ ឆ្នាំ​២០១៧ | RFA TV for 8 Dec. 2017

កម្មវិធី ​ទូរទស្សន៍ ​អាស៊ីសេរី​ សម្រាប់​ ថ្ងៃ​ទី៨​ ខែ​ធ្នូ​​​ ឆ្នាំ​២០១៧

Breaking: Supreme Court upholds Boeung Kak convictions

Content image - Phnom Penh Post
Boeung Kak activist Tep Vanny is escorted by officials into the Supreme Court in January this year. Hong Menea

Breaking: Supreme Court upholds Boeung Kak convictions

 Phnom Penh Post | 8 December 2017

The Supreme Court today upheld the convictions of three Boeung Kak activists – including Tep Vanny – for allegedly obstructing and insulting public officials during a 2011 demonstration outside Phnom Penh City Hall. Their six month sentences were also upheld. 

Vanny, Bo Chhorvy and Kong Chantha were originally sentenced in September 2016, five years after an effort by some 100 community activists to deliver a petition to City Hall grew violent when security forces tried to disperse them. Authorities accused them and another activist, Heng Mom, of attacking and “insulting” security officials. 

កម្មវិធី​ ទូរទស្សន៍​ អាស៊ីសេរី​ សម្រាប់ ​ថ្ងៃទី៧ ខែធ្នូ ​ឆ្នាំ២០១៧ | RFA TV for 7 Dec. 2017

កម្មវិធី​ ទូរទស្សន៍​ អាស៊ីសេរី​ សម្រាប់ ​ថ្ងៃទី៧ ខែធ្នូ ​ឆ្នាំ២០១៧

លោក ហ៊ុន សែន ចោទ​លោក​ សម រង្ស៊ី​ ថា​ ក្បត់​ជាតិ | Hun Sen accuses Sam Rainsy as traitor

លោក ហ៊ុន សែន ចោទ​លោក​ សម រង្ស៊ី​ ថា​ ក្បត់​ជាតិ

RFA / វិទ្យុ អាស៊ី សេរី  | ៦ ធ្នូ ២០១៧

សម្ភាស​ លោក សម រង្ស៊ី ជុំវិញ​ ការ​ដាក់​ ទណ្ឌកម្ម​ លើ​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​ កម្ពុជា | Interview with Sam Rainsy re sanctions against Cambodian govt

អតីត​ប្រធាន​គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ លោក សម រង្ស៊ី ថ្លែង​សារ​នៅ​ថ្ងៃ​ទី​២៧ ខែ​សីហា ឆ្នាំ​២០១៧។ Photo courtesy of Sam Rainsy's Facebook Page
អតីត​ប្រធាន​គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ លោក សម រង្ស៊ី ថ្លែង​សារ​នៅ​ថ្ងៃ​ទី​២៧ ខែ​សីហា ឆ្នាំ​២០១៧។ Photo courtesy of Sam Rainsy's Facebook Page

សម្ភាស​ លោក សម រង្ស៊ី ជុំវិញ​ ការ​ដាក់​ ទណ្ឌកម្ម​ លើ​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​ កម្ពុជា

RFA / វិទ្យុ អាស៊ី សេរី  | ៧ ធ្នូ ២០១៧